Terms of meat and meat products in accordance with the designation, there is the hot market of fresh meat, frozen meat, chilled meat belong to the meat category. But because produce processing and storage methods, the premise of producing the different techniques, three meat products in the form of health, sensory, nutrition, there is a big difference in quality. In this paper, analysis and comparison of chilled meat, hot meat, frozen meat, health, nutrition, sensory characteristics, analyzes the quality of chilled meat upper hand.
1, characteristics and quality of chilled meat
Chilled meat is the strict implementation of veterinary health inspection in the rail system were slaughtered, the carcass quickly cooling treatment, the carcass temperature (as measured after the central point of leg) within 24 hours, reduced to 0 ℃ -4 ℃, and in the follow-up processing and smooth sales process smooth and always kept at 0 ℃ -4 ℃ produced meat products, was also known as cold meat, meat row of acid, which is based on biochemical changes of meat, the governance of contemporary scientific thinking and ways to improve their predecessors combination of technology and equipment as a whole, from raw materials to be placed in the whole process of selling a comprehensive HACCP quality control system strictly monitored to ensure high product quality and scale, which also implements produced scale and modernization, on behalf of the meat processing industry directions.
(1) Health and safety. Because the chilled meat from raw materials inspection, slaughtering, fast-cooling division, Eviscerate, packaging, transportation, storage, and sales of the whole process is always in the cold chain process and eliminate body heat quickly, reducing the temperature of deep and surface layer of the meat Dry film, slowing evaporation of water within the body. Extend the collection period of the meat, and prevent the propagation of microbial growth, the majority of micro-organisms (spoilage and pathogenic bacteria in particular) are restrained. In addition, muscle glycogen in the glycolysis chilled meat born lactic acid may also restrain or kill the microorganisms in meat departments, health and safety of a certain security, and reduce the evaporation of water body within the department to extend the meat of the collection period.
(2) nutritional properties. Follow the basic rules of biochemistry Chilled meat, chilled meat from the slaughter to the sales process, about to be returned by 2 days time, which is a natural maturation process. During this period the meat temperature at the appropriate and orderly completion of rigor mortis, rigor soften and mature in this process, the normal muscle protein degradation of muscle weakness in row, significant progress tenderness, texture becomes soft and flexible, nutrients are fully maintained, is very beneficial to the body's digestion and absorption. Chilled meat during the cooling process, the muscle action of the enzyme by autolysis, the Department of sarcoplasmic proteins break down into hypoxanthine nucleotides ATP, muscle myofibrillar broken down into peptides and amino acids, a component of meat extract, while connection structure will become fragile and break into small pieces, thus enabling the meat to become tender and juicy with good taste and flavor, the taste delicious.
Chilled meat not frozen, not thawed before eating, no loss of nutrition to overcome the nutritional deficiencies of the frozen meat. Because of the cold chain formation, lipid oxidation of chilled meat restrain chaos by reducing the aldehyde, ketone compounds such as small molecule natural odor and prevent its adverse human health effects.
(3) the sensory properties. Designated shelf life chilled meat in the glory bright, myoglobin is not browning, this is no different with the hot meat and meat softer. Mature chilled meat at low temperatures, proteins, ATP and other normal decomposition, not only the formation of soluble peptides and amino acids, nucleotides, and won the flavor, so that significantly improved the flavor of the meat. In the mature stage, some of the chemical composition and degradation of the formation of the accumulation of a variety of small molecule compounds for the formation of Meat curing time basis.
In addition, to facilitate the consumption of chilled meat has not thawed to facilitate the buy-to-use, but also in the process of chilled meat produced, more food with a feature set by using the segmentation procedure, showing the state divided the meat, to provide consumers with great to facilitate.
2, thermal characteristics and quality of fresh meat
Hot meat is slaughtered early in the morning, early in the morning market, but also maintain a certain temperature meat.
(1) Health and safety. Hot meat has been thought that the most of fresh meat, but it is not this predicament. After killing and bleeding after the simple processing of fresh meat directly to the heat market, in storage, once through the rigor mortis of its own organization in a variety of enhanced degradation, which could explain the ATP points and the meat temperature rise (and sometimes the temperature can be up to 40-42 ℃), then the organization to reduce acid components, PH value of the increase, combined with the surface of moist meat, the overgrowth of bacteria in the premise of providing affordable. And the smooth flow of hot meat in the minimum temperature is also 10 ℃, the maximum temperature up to about 35 ℃. So hot meat at the wholesale, retail and food in the process to the user will be subject to dust and flies in the air, transport vehicles, hand manipulation, and many other staff of pollution, bacteria multiply (a common bacteria associated with four grape bacteria, etc.), causing the meat surface, corruption, the formation of mucus or deterioration. Generally thought that heat does not exceed the shelf life of fresh meat 1d. In the summer, a few hours later, the amount of contaminated meat will reach countless, not only easy to spoilage, but also caused serious food safety issue.
National scale of meat meat food hygiene requirements are: muscle shiny, red average, do not look wet sticky; tough, mean pressure immediately after the restoration; with natural meat flavor, no smell. But the hot meat into the hands of consumers often do not meet the scale of the time of the.
(2) nutritional properties. Hot meat from animals slaughtered to be eaten by the consumer through a short time, generally failed to complete - the normal maturation process. Soon the animals had just died, the state of the muscle fibers were stiff, and only by the rigor, mature process, amino acids, peptides can be formed until the flavor, the meat will taste delicious. If it is in the stiffness of the muscles, the acidity gradually increased, the hardness gradually increased, the hardness can be increased to the original 10 to 40 times, making significant changes in the physical properties of the muscle, expressed as hard and tough, the lack of juice, difficult to chew , thus affecting the digestion and absorption, which objectively reduces the nutritional value of meat protein. Common maturation process required for livestock and poultry are as follows: pigs for 2-3 days, the chicken for 3-4 days, the bulls will have 7-8 days. Visible, hot meat after purchase, if consumed immediately, the taste of the meat is not delicious. Therefore, the best fresh meat on the heat retention of low-temperature environment, such as the fridge freezer, the next food.
(3) the sensory properties. As noted above, generally can not be completed because the hot meat slaughtered stiff stiffen blood → → → mature autolysis rigor inherent in this process of change itself, which may lead to sensory characteristics of the main indicators of luster, flavor, texture and aroma of the normal formation of suspension, usually in the slaughtered animal carcasses into the stiffness of 4.2h, such as high ambient temperature will be in advance. Once the muscle stiffness, poor sensory characteristics of natural change.
3, the frozen meat quality characteristics
Using low temperature below -25 ℃ to rapid cooling of meat products and a complete freeze, and then remain in the -18 ℃ under the premise of frozen meat sold as frozen meat.
(1) Health and safety. Because the low temperature, frozen tissues were frozen meat, frozen to death a large number of micro-organisms, and the remaining sectors are significantly restrain growth and reproduction, the carrier status of meat has been significantly improved, the room temperature to eliminate microbial contamination of meat can easily be drawbacks. Health and safety and therefore more conducive to long-term retention of meat products.
(2) nutritional properties. Thawing of frozen meat, resulting in the loss of juice, juice may account for the loss of about 7% of the original quality of these juices are rich in protein and other nutrients, because water loss, its nutrients and flavor losses.
(3) the sensory properties. Memory storage in the frozen, because freezing of the way there are all sorts of topics, the surface of meat may cause dehydration, tissue shrinkage, dark meat, flesh thicker fibers and other adverse changes. The slow oxidation of lipids produces odor.
(4) the upper hand the quality of chilled meat
Chilled and frozen meat has absorbed heat meat strengths, but also ruled out two flaws. It is the strict implementation of quarantine track system of the animal carcass after slaughter, the premise at 0-4 ℃, the rapid cooling treatment, the carcass temperature from 38 ℃ within 24 hours or so reduced to 0-4 ℃, and in the subsequent processing, smooth flow and distribution process remain frozen in the range of 0-4 ℃ cooling chain. Because the meat is always in the cold under the control of the cooling temperature, enzyme activity and microbial growth and reproduction are most restrained, Clostridium botulinum and Staphylococcus aureus secrete toxins and other pathogens do not avoid meat corruption. Ensure that health and safety of cold meat. General shelf life of hot meat only 1-2 days, and cold meat shelf life of up to a week or more, while the cold meat in the cool environment, a layer of dry film formed on the surface can reduce evaporation, prevent microbial intrusion and propagation in the surface of the meat, combined with cold meat through the row of acid, so to have the texture is soft and juicy, delicious taste of the strength, easy cutting and cooking. And frozen at minus 18 ℃ below the frozen meat to retain match, cold meat is not dehydrated, water-soluble vitamins and water-soluble proteins rarely flowing out, retain the nutritional value of meat.
Chilled meat is pure meat, the meat is difficult to form irrigation, high nutritional value. Because the meat during the cooling process, some loss of natural moisture, making the surface wet chilled meat, plus the water is difficult to stay in the muscle, and thus will not form irrigation meat.
Chilled meat economy, affordable and user-friendliness, by the pan-Bo consumers, has assured Atsumi said the meat, the market reflects the strong excitement, rapid development momentum, will become the mainstream of raw meat consumption and must trends.